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Contractual penalty is a very popular and effective tool for ensuring contractual obligations in the Slovak commercial law. Contractual penalty has a particular preventive, punitive and reparation function. In this article, the author deals with the essential rules of the contractual penalty in the Commercial and Civil Code, compares the legal rules in both laws and deals with the essential attributes of the contractual penalty as a private tool. The article is also focused on a moderation law court and on the most common errors that occur in the formulation of contractual penalties. Author deals with the interpretation of various legal rules and also with decision-making activities of Slovak courts in this theme.

Key words: commercial law, contractual penalty, commercial code, civil code, decision-making of the courts, business contractual relationships


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